Dyssomnia is one of the primary sleep disorders that make a person having difficulty in initiating sleep or to remain sleep. Having this kind of disorder interrupts the amount, time and quality of sleep. The usual causes of dyssomnias are early bedtime, daytime napping, stress, physical pain and caffeine.
Dyssomnias are divided into 3 principal subcategories:
- Intrinsic – originated within the body
- Extrinsic – derived from environmental conditions
- Circadian Rhythm – developed from both Intrinsic and Extrinsic sleep disorders
Intrinsic Sleep Disorders
Hypersomnia – identified by EDS or Excessive Daytime Sleepiness. It is characterized by too much amounts of sleep at night and having a hard time waking from long sleep. Person who has hypersomnia often sleep up to 18 hours and instead of feeling recharged, he or she feels disoriented. Kleine-Levin Syndrome or Sleeping Beauty Syndrome is the popular form of hypersomnia.
Narcolepsy – This is also characterized by EDS and considered as severe sleep disorder which occurs at unexpected times. It usually let the patient fall asleep immediately at the REM stage within 10 minutes only. This is seriously dangerous for the person who has narcolepsy because he or she can fall asleep while walking, running, driving, etc.
Periodic Limb Movement Disorder – also called as Nocturnal Myoclonus in which the person moves limbs helplessly while sleeping. The patient is frequently not aware of these movements altogether.
Restless Legs Syndrome – also known as Wittmaack-Ekbom’s Syndrome and “the jimmylegs” is a state in which the patient has a strong desire to move one’s body in the legs or arms with the “pins and needles” feeling. The movement helps to get out the pain sensation.
Sleep Apnea – one common sleep disorders that pauses one’s breathing while sleeping. Breathing pauses event takes a minimum of 10 seconds interval between breaths. Loud snoring is the usual symptoms of sleep apnea although not everyone who snores has apnea. This type of disorder is also prone to stroke, high blood pressure, heart attack, impotence, irregular heart beat, heart disease and rapid weight gain.
Extrinsic Sleep Disorder
Insomnia – the most common sleep disorder that let the person having a hard time to get or to initiate sleep and it is more common to women than men. This might be due to poor sleeping habits, caffeine intake, stress and emotional difficulties.
Another extrinsic sleep disorders are alcohol-dependent, food allergy and inadequate sleep routine.
Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder
Advanced Sleep Phase Syndrome – is common to elderly person and menopausal women. This is a case wherein the person feels very sleepy early evening and will wake up early morning.
Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome – person with this disorder fall asleep after midnight and having a difficulty waking up in the morning.
Jetlag – acquired when travelled across a number of time zones. A person needs several days to adjust his or her body clock that was out of synchronization.
Shift Work Sleep Disorder – affects the people who changed their working schedule from morning to night shift or night shift to morning shift. Continuous with these patterns may result to insomnia or EDS.